Apparently the results of a survey on the subject have just been released by MDRA, a market research agency. The report from the Press Trust of India is at: www.ptinews.com/news/483396_Executives-at-top-positions-most-corrupt--says-a-survey
However, I cannot see it on the MDRA site: www.mdraonline.com
As the sample size is smaller than 1000, in a country like India the survey results could be technically considered indicative rather than substantial.
However, the new thing that the report reveals is that there is greater toleration of corruption at the top levels in society than there is at the bottom levels of society.
This is presumably because the top levels benefit the most from corruption, while the bottom levels suffer the most from corruption.
In any case, the finding must surely not only be a sign of hope but, for those who are interested in doing something about, it must also suggest a strategy for action.
"An average 86 per cent of respondents believe that corruption is a common phenomenon in corporate India. The acceptance towards corruption increases from lower management (83.4 per cent) to middle management (88.1 per cent) to senior management (90.2 per cent)," the survey by market research and consulting firm Marketing and Development Research Associates (MDRA) said.
The study by MDRA was conducted among 742 employees across the sectors in Delhi, Noida, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai and Hyderabad.
The employees surveyed ranked monetary transaction as the most prevalent form of corruption while nepotism comes at bottom. Monetary transaction at 39.2 per cent is followed by exploitation at 17.1 per cent.
Besides, breach of trust and fraud are the other form of corruptions widely seen in the corporate world. When it comes to activity-wise corruption, 36 percent respondents said most frequent corruption is observed in recruitment process followed by promotion/performance appraisal (24 percent).
Further, 22 percent of the surveyed employees said that it occurs most in procurement and 17 percent of them consider it is visible in project implementation, the survey said"